The present post is the collaboration of our teacher of the Civil engineering career, Wiston Azañedo.
In order to be able to frame ourselves in the tendencies of civil engineering we must understand the current characteristics of society. Today, the world goes through many changes, we live with the inexorable process of globalization, in the vertiginous advancement of technological innovations, faster and more efficient communications, virtualization, competitiveness at all levels, and in a Transformation of time and space. We enter a world where the derivatives of the following variables govern: speed, interconnectivity and the intangible, a world where the maximum term is immediacy and where what was fixed now is mobile.
At the Civil Engineering Summit in the year 2006 by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) analyzed the global perspective of civil Engineer for the year 2025, which raised current trends recognizing the defective state of the Infrastructures in many countries, the scarce participation of civil engineers in political processes, the need to achieve sustainability, the globalization of engineering practices, the desire to capture the best professionals and the increase Gradual awareness of environmental care.
The summit participants contemplated that by the year 2025 the world would be very different from the current one, with a world population in permanent growth, moving from rural areas to urban areas, which will require widespread adoption for the Sustainability such as demand for energy, potable water, clean air, safe disposal of waste and transportation required to promote environmental protection and sustainable infrastructure development.
In order to confront the risks to the increasing threats of natural disasters and other causes, in civil engineering it has been proposed to fulfil goals that serve in a competent, collaborative and ethical manner the urgent training of its professionals with competences to Perform as:
• Planners, designers, builders and operators of the economic and social engine of society: the Environment built;
• Protectors of the natural environment and their resources;
• Innovators and integrators of ideas and technology in the public, private and academic sectors.
• Managers of risks and uncertainties caused by natural events, accidents and other threats; And
• Leaders in debates and decisions that make up the environmental and infrastructure public policy. ”
Under these circumstances there are unprecedented challenges in particular for civil engineers, as today’s civilization requires an infrastructure capable of satisfying the new development features: vertical growth, buildings Sustainable, use of optimized materials, increased use of nano materials, intelligent infrastructures; Rational use of water.
Vertical growth of cities:
most cities have been developed by small houses and often remote from each other; Scattered cities consume greater resources by the requirement of services, more energy, more soil, more water; However, the “verticality” of the buildings manages to make the dense cities more compact with less invasion of their nature making easier the construction of networks of supply and potable water, the reduction of the public transport network.
Controlled verticality is the most efficient model of living and remaining on the planet without affecting it. The life in height is more human, the dense city facilitates the contact between the people and solves problems of exploitation of the nature.
Sustainable buildings: these buildings refer to the use of constructive methods and the use of materials respecting the environment where it is developed from its planning, design, location, construction, using renewable energy (solar source, Wind, etc.), preserving the water, taking advantage of the natural resources of light and ventilation, minimizing the waste and creating productive environments.
Use of optimized materials: As a result of the research, various materials are appearing to be used in civil works that allow to optimize their properties of mechanical resistance, durability, economic factors, Availability and respect for the environment; Thus, materials such as translucent concrete, permeable concrete, flexible concrete, carbon fibre, composites, nanotubes, Nanoceramics, nanopaints, and perhaps why not, the industrialized use in the construction of the aerogel and other Innovative